Computational topology and the Unique Games ConjectureJoshua A. Grochowhttps://www.cs.colorado.edu/~jgrochow/meproceedings2018JuneSoCG34th International Symposium on Computational Geometryhttps://www.renyi.hu//conferences/socg18/socg_accepted_papers.xml43:1-43:16HungaryBudapestarXivhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1803.06800Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture—Unique Games and Max-2Lin—are instances of Maximum Section of a Covering Space on graphs. We then observe that the reduction between these two problems (Khot-Kindler-Mossel-O'Donnell, FOCS 2004 and SICOMP, 2007) gives a well-defined map of covering spaces. We further prove that inapproximability for Maximum Section of a Covering Space on (cell decompositions of) closed 2-manifolds is also equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture. This gives the first new "Unique Games-complete" problem in over a decade. Our results partially settle an open question of Chen and Freedman (SODA 2010 and Disc. Comput. Geom., 2011) from computational topology, by showing that their question is almost equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture. (The main difference is that they ask for inapproximability over Z/2Z, and we show Unique Games-completeness over Z/kZ for large k.) This equivalence comes from the fact that when the structure group G of the covering space is Abelian—or more generally for principal G-bundles—Maximum Section of a G-Covering Space is the same as the well-studied problem of 1-Homology Localization. Although our most technically demanding result is an application of Unique Games to computational topology, we hope that our observations on the topological nature of the Unique Games Conjecture will lead to applications of algebraic topology to the Unique Games Conjecture in the future.